The Egyptian legal system is primarily based on the French civil legal system, various other European codes and religious law. In practice, religious law is applied only to personal status and family matters which are governed by the religious law of the individual concerned. The fundamental and organic law of Egypt is the Constitution thereof, which Constitution was passed in a referendum in January 2014 and amended in April 2019.
Generally, the Egyptian law does not recognize the concept of piercing the corporate veil, therefore, the liability of shareholders, in general, in Joint Stock Companies or allotment holders in Limited Liability Companies is only limited to the paid-up capital except in some limited cases.
In order to enforce an arbitration award in Egypt, an enforcement order must be obtained by the competent Court of Appeal, providing that such arbitration award does not contravene the Egyptian public order or morality, and does not deal with rights over immovable properties located in Egypt, personal status or criminal issues.
In general, there is no restriction on foreign ownership of entities incorporated in Egypt except for limited cases such as entities: (i) undertake the activities of importation for the resale purpose , commercial agencies, and/or intermediary business; and, or (ii) are located or doing business in Sinai.